Influence of shelf temperature on pore formation in garlic during freeze-drying

S. S. Sablani*, M. S. Rahman, Mohammed Al-Khusaibi, N. A. Al-Habsi, R. H. Al-Belushi, I. Al-Marhubi, I. S. Al-Amri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


The formation of pores in garlic was examined during freeze-drying at different shelf temperatures (-5, -15, and -25 °C). The moisture content of dried garlic and its temperatures at different locations within the sample were measured as a function of drying time. The apparent porosity of fresh garlic was 0.25 (±0.03), while 72 h dried samples showed about 0.700 for the drying temperatures used in this study. Apparent porosity increased with the decrease of moisture content showing varied curvatures depending on the shelf temperatures. The estimated shrinkage-expansion coefficients from Rahman's model were 0.313, 0.429, and 0.409 for shelf temperatures -5, -15 and -25 °C, respectively. Samples dried at -5 °C showed significantly lower open pore porosity compared with the samples dried at -15 and -25 °C, respectively, although all samples showed similar apparent (i.e. total) porosity. Pore-size distribution and scanning electron micrographs also supported that characteristics of pores are different for samples fried at -5 °C when compared with samples dried at -15 °C and -25 °C.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)68-79
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 2007


  • Apparent density
  • Apparent porosity
  • Drying kinetics
  • Porosimetry scanning electron microscopy
  • Shrinkage expansion coefficient

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Influence of shelf temperature on pore formation in garlic during freeze-drying'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this