Exploring how power distance influences principal instructional leadership effects on teacher agency and classroom instruction in Oman: A moderated-mediation analysis: A moderated-mediation analysis

Yasser F. Hendawy Al-Mahdy*, Philip Hallinger, Ehab Omara, Mahmoud Amer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Nations throughout the world have been engaged in efforts to redefine the role of principals to include instructional leadership. This is based upon research that has verified a positive indirect relationship between principal instructional leadership and student learning. This study tested a moderated mediation model of how the power distance orientation of teachers influences the effects of principal instructional leadership on teacher agency and classroom instruction. Data collected from 464 teachers in 65 middle schools in Oman were analysed using structural equation modelling, factor analysis and bootsrapping. The results supported a partial mediation model in which principal instructional leadership was associated with moderate direct and indirect effects through teacher agency on classroom instruction. In addition, lower power distance in principal–teacher professional relationships was associated with stronger effects of instructional leadership on teacher agency. These findings support assertions that instructional leadership is a relational process rather than a top-down bureaucratic form of leadership.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)174114322211139
JournalEducational Management Administration and Leadership
Publication statusPublished - Jul 26 2022


  • Middle East
  • Oman
  • Power distance
  • classroom instruction
  • instructional leadership
  • moderated mediation
  • principal
  • school leadership effects
  • teacher agency

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Strategy and Management

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