EFL Reading Achievement: Impact of Gender and Self-efficacy Beliefs

Mohammed Osman, Hamia 4. Al Khamisi, Thuwaiba Albarwani, Abdo Al Mekhlafi

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Research has shown that reading is highly correlated with
students' academic performance in other disciplines. However, students'
reading attainment is influenced by many factors. The purpose of this
study is two folds: Investigating the gender gap in English as a foreign
language (EFL) reading achievement of male and female basic education
students in grades four and ten; and also examining the relationship
between these students' reading achievement and their reading selfefficacy beliefs. More specifically, it examined the differences in these
beliefs in light of gender and grade level and the interaction between the
two. The total sample consisted of 636 students, 260 grade four students
and 376 grade ten students from basic education schools in the Sultanate
of Oman.
Two research instruments were used in this study: national
reading achievement tests obtained from the Ministry of Education and
a reading self-efficacy beliefs scale developed by the researchers.
Findings revealed that there were gender gaps in the EFL reading
achievement in favor of females in both grades four and ten. Moreover,
the findings showed that females in both grades held a superior level of
reading self-efficacy beliefs for their EFL reading achievement than
males did. Added to that, the findings showed that grade four students
reading self-efficacy beliefs for EFL reading achievement was higher
than those of grade ten. Finally, the findings showed a strong
association between reading self-efficacy beliefs and the reading
achievement of students in both grades; students with higher levels of
self-efficacy beliefs for EFL reading tended to perform better in their
reading achievement tests.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • EFL Reading; Self-efficacy beliefs; Gender gap; Basic Education; Reading achievement.

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