Antigen delivery by virus-like particles for immunotherapeutic vaccination

Farah Al-Barwani, Braeden Donaldson, Simon J. Pelham, Sarah L. Young, Vernon K. Ward*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an effective means of establishing both prophylactic and therapeutic immunity against their source virus or heterologous antigens. The particulate nature and repetitive structure of VLPs makes them ideal for stimulating potent immune responses. Epitopes delivered by VLPs can be presented on MHC-II for stimulation of a humoral immune response, or cross-presented onto MHC-I leading to cell-mediated immunity. VLPs as particulate subunit vaccine carriers are showing promise in preclinical and clinical trials for the treatment of many conditions including cancer, autoimmunity, allergies and addiction. Supporting the delivery of almost any form of antigenic material, VLPs are ideal candidate vectors for development of future vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1223-1240
Number of pages18
JournalTherapeutic Delivery
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2014
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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