Virus-like particles (VLPs) are an effective means of establishing both prophylactic and therapeutic immunity against their source virus or heterologous antigens. The particulate nature and repetitive structure of VLPs makes them ideal for stimulating potent immune responses. Epitopes delivered by VLPs can be presented on MHC-II for stimulation of a humoral immune response, or cross-presented onto MHC-I leading to cell-mediated immunity. VLPs as particulate subunit vaccine carriers are showing promise in preclinical and clinical trials for the treatment of many conditions including cancer, autoimmunity, allergies and addiction. Supporting the delivery of almost any form of antigenic material, VLPs are ideal candidate vectors for development of future vaccines.
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