Oil and chemical spills, which reach coastal and marine environments through different sources, pose serious environmental threat due to the nature of the associated persistent contaminants. Millions of tons of oil and chemical spills have been released to the marine environment accidentally or intentionally. Consequently, huge environmental impacts have been recognized and studied by different researchers. This article tries to provide some cases of oil and chemical spills in the Middle East and other areas around the world. It tries to illustrate the negative effects of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, in intertidal and subtidal zones, on the marine environment and biota. Hence, it provides incentives for the adaptation of safe measures to reduce the threat of marine oil and chemical pollution. New procedures and equipment in oil exploration and transportation must be applied to ensure less occurrence of pollution. Treatment plants should be constructed to deal with ballast water near loading stations. Moreover, countries and concerned authorities must continue to update the environmental issues and records by setting strict laws and encourage and support environmental research and development.
|عنوان منشور المضيف||Encyclopedia of Environmental Health|
|رقم المعيار الدولي للكتب (المطبوع)||9780444522726|
|المعرِّفات الرقمية للأشياء|
|حالة النشر||Published - يناير 1 2011|
ASJC Scopus subject areas