The growing demand for citric acid and the current need for alternative sources have encouraged biotechnologists to search for novel and economical substrates. Koji fermentation was conducted using the peels of banana (Musa acuminata) as an inexpensive substrate for the production of citric acid using Aspergillus niger. Various crucial parameters that affect citric acid production such as moisture content, temperature, pH, inoculum level and incubation time were quantified. Moisture (70%), 28 °C temperature, an initial pH 3, 108 spores/ml as inoculum and 72 h incubation was found to be suitable for maximum citric acid production by A. niger using banana peel as a substrate.
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