Early control of glycaemia is key to reduce vascular complications in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Therefore, encouraging children and adolescents with T1DM to take responsibility for controlling glucose levels is an important yet a challenging task. The rapid expansion of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems has allowed for more comprehensive analysis of glycaemia in T1D. Moreover, CGM devices have the ability to calculate rate of change in glucose levels and display the information as trend arrows. In turn, this can help to take evasive actions to return glucose levels to near physiological glycaemia, which can be highly motivating for young people with T1DM. In the absence of standardised, evidence-based guidance, this consensus document, generated by experts from the Arab Society of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and international advisors, summarises recent literature on the use of trend arrows in young people with T1DM. The use of trend arrows in different CGM systems is reviewed and their clinical significance is highlighted. Adjusting insulin doses according to trend arrows is discussed while also addressing special situations, such as exercise, fasting, nocturnal hypoglycaemia and menstruation. Adequate understanding of trend arrows should facilitate optimisation of glycaemic control in the T1D population.
- Continuous glucose monitoring
- glucose variability
- trend arrow
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine