Use of continuous glucose monitoring trend arrows in the younger population with type 1 diabetes

Nancy Elbarbary*, Othmar Moser, Saif Al yaarubi, Hussain Alsaffar, Adnan Al Shaikh, Ramzi A. Ajjan, Asma Deeb

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Early control of glycaemia is key to reduce vascular complications in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. Therefore, encouraging children and adolescents with T1DM to take responsibility for controlling glucose levels is an important yet a challenging task. The rapid expansion of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems has allowed for more comprehensive analysis of glycaemia in T1D. Moreover, CGM devices have the ability to calculate rate of change in glucose levels and display the information as trend arrows. In turn, this can help to take evasive actions to return glucose levels to near physiological glycaemia, which can be highly motivating for young people with T1DM. In the absence of standardised, evidence-based guidance, this consensus document, generated by experts from the Arab Society of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes and international advisors, summarises recent literature on the use of trend arrows in young people with T1DM. The use of trend arrows in different CGM systems is reviewed and their clinical significance is highlighted. Adjusting insulin doses according to trend arrows is discussed while also addressing special situations, such as exercise, fasting, nocturnal hypoglycaemia and menstruation. Adequate understanding of trend arrows should facilitate optimisation of glycaemic control in the T1D population.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes and Vascular Disease Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 11 2021


  • Continuous glucose monitoring
  • adolescents
  • children
  • glucose variability
  • hypoglycaemia
  • trend arrow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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