Time Difference of Arrival Based Indoor Positioning System Using Visible Light Communication

SAAD MEHMOOD SHEIKH, Hafiz Muhammad Asif*, Kaamran Raahemifar, Fadi Al-Turjman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a novel optical wireless communication technology which uses Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and Photodiodes for coherent detection and very-high-data rate data communication system. The stringent Line of Sight (LoS) requirement in VLC makes it very suitable for Indoor Positioning System (IPS), to be used for autonomous and smart city infrastructure. The current work aims to implement a real time IPS system using VLC link in Network Simulator (NS-3). The VLC module is implemented by modelling real-time attributes of LEDs, optical channel, and the photodiodes. The localization is carried out using trilateration schemes which measures the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) and the Time Difference of Arrival (TDoA) for position estimation of the target. The project is further extended to obtain a comparative analysis between VLC link and other existing technology, Wi-Fi, as far as positioning accuracy and other important performance metrics are concerned. The simulation results show significant improvement for the VLC link over the Wi-Fi link specially for the TDoA scheme accompanied by increasing number of beacon nodes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9389716
Pages (from-to)52113-52124
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - Mar 21 2021


  • IPS
  • NS-3 simulator
  • RSSI
  • TDoA
  • Visible light communication
  • trilateration or multilateration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • General Computer Science

Cite this