The potentialof renewable energy: Using the environmental kuznets curve model

Jamalludin Sulaiman*, Azlinda Azman, Behnaz Saboori

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines the potential of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in reducing the impact of carbon emission in Malaysia and the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, which leads to global warming. Using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, this study analyses the impact of electricity generated using RES on the environment and trade openness for the period 1980-2009. Using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach the results show that the elasticities of electricity production from renewable sources with respect to CO2 emissions are negative and significant in both the short and long-run. This implies the potential of renewable energy in controlling CO2 emissions in both short and long-run in Malaysia. Renewable energy can ensure sustainability of electricity supply and at the same time can reduce CO2 emissions. Trade openness has a significant negative effect on CO2 emissions in the long-run. The Granger causality test based on Vector Error Correction Mode (VECM) indicates that there is an evidence of positive bi-directional Granger causality relationship between economic growth and CO2 emissions in the short and long-run suggesting that carbon emissions and economic growth are interrelated to each other. Furthermore, there is a negative long-run bi-directional Granger causality relationship between electricity production from renewable sources and CO2 emissions. The short-run Granger causality shows a negative uni-directional causality for electricity production from renewable sources to CO2 emissions. This result suggests that there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emissions and economic growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103-112
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Environmental Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • CO emissions
  • Electricity consumption
  • Renewable energy
  • Trade

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Pollution

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