The phenomenographic method: Principles and applications in the social sciences

Hamed Mohamed Al-Azri*, Nabhan Harith Al-Harrasi, Ali Saif Al-Aufi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The study aimed at introducing phenomenography as a qualitative methodology based on field research and its capacity to propose solutions based on the varying experiences of individuals about the studied phenomenon. The study used the content analysis method and highlighted findings of forty-one articles published in English that are directly related to the methodology. The study dealt with the definition of the methodology and discussed its philosophical framework, with clarification given to data collection, analysis, traits and most important challenges. The study also reviewed samples of published research that used the methodology to highlight the scientific contributions and emphasize the opportunities that could be applied in the future. The finding of this study sheds light in the increased use of phenomenography in recent years in various topics. The results have shown clearly that the literature has not pointed to any publication that discussed this methodology in Arabic. Therefore, it is hoped that phenomenography will be adopted and used in scientific research by means of Arabic.

Original languageEnglish
Article number15
Pages (from-to)97-108
Number of pages12
JournalInformation Sciences Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Phenomenographic method
  • Qualitative research
  • Research methods in the social science

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Library and Information Sciences
  • Applied Mathematics


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