The nature of third-millennium settlement: The example of al-Tikha (Rustaq) an Umm an-Nar site on the Batinah coast of Oman

William M. Deadman*, Derek Kennet, Michel de Vreeze, Nasser S. al-Jahwari

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


al-Tikha is a mid to large Umm an-Nar (c. 2700–2000 BC) settlement situated near Rustaq at the back of the Southern Batinah coastal plain in the Sultanate of Oman that was discovered (or rediscovered) in 2014. The site is unique because its layout and spatial organisation are very largely (possibly completely) visible on the surface. This includes two separate areas of stone-built housing, a large pottery scatter of varying density, three or four typical Umm an-Nar round towers and a small cemetery consisting of at least four tombs, along with a few other features. The layout of the site is described and discussed in detail, in particular, in relation to what it might tell us about the nature of Umm an-Nar settlement and social organisation more generally. The location of the site within a pattern of repeating Umm an-Nar settlement along Wadi Far (Wādī al-Farʿī) is also described and discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-84
Number of pages36
JournalArabian Archaeology and Epigraphy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Early Bronze Age
  • Southeastern Arabia
  • Umm an-Nar
  • landscape
  • settlement
  • spatial organisation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Archaeology
  • Arts and Humanities(all)

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