Sustainable reuse options of treated effluents: A case study from Muscat, Oman

Mahad Baawain*, Ahmed Sana, Rashid Al-Yahyai, Patrick Amoatey

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Oman, being a semi-arid country, is in great need for extensive reuse practices of treated wastewater effluents. However, these practices need to be environmentally and economically feasible under the prevailing sophisticated treatment systems, inadequate infrastructure including sewers and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). This study attempts to provide decision makers with a comprehensive characterisation of treated wastewater effluents in Muscat and to assess public opinions towards various reuse options of treated wastewater. Results from characterisation of the treated wastewater indicate great performance of the WWTPs in removing biological oxygen (O2) demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), as the maximum BOD and COD observed were less than 4 and 60-mg/l, respectively. The turbidity was found very low (below 3 nephelometric turbidity units), including total suspended solids of 13-mg/l. Most of the results showed relatively low counts of the total coliform bacteria except where a high variation was observed (400-2400 most probable number/100-ml). However, the aforementioned water quality indicators were able to meet Omani standards with the exception of a few parameters. In addition, the survey showed that the public had a general understanding of the different options of treated wastewater applications including their treatment procedures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-202
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Environmental Engineering and Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Sept 20 2019


  • Public policy
  • recycling & reuse of materials
  • sewage treatment & disposal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science


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