Substantial gender gap reduction in Bangladesh explained by the proximity measure of literacy and life expectancy

Md Hasinur Rahaman Khan*, A. M.Azharul Islam, Faisal Ababneh

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The Human Development Index (HDI) is an indicator that substantially captures the overall country level status on human welfare based on issues of equity, poverty, and gender. This study uses a proximity measure of simultaneous effect of literacy and life expectancy called literate life expectancy (LLE) as a measure of human quality. This study discusses the distribution of LLE along with giving a detail gender and spatial differentials. With the proximity indicator we quantify gander gap between the year 1981 and 2008. Over the 27 years more than substantial improvement in LLE are found among women than with far less improvement rate among men in both national and residence level. We also learn that measured over time, the indicator allows statements about the rate of change and not just static differences. The LLE is useful as this index could be used to calculate future social development by adopting different mortality and educational scenarios such as health treatment facilities, nutritious food, easy access to clean drinking water, air pollution, greenhouse emissions, psychological stress, and most importantly, poverty, which can be associated with specific policy assumptions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2377-2395
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Applied Statistics
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2 2016


  • Literate life expectancy
  • gendergap
  • life expectancy
  • literacy rate
  • social indicator

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistics and Probability
  • Statistics, Probability and Uncertainty


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