Stature estimation by using upper limb measurements in the Malaysian population

Siti Noorain Abu Bakar, Aspalilah Alias, Nurliza Abdullah, Hairuliza Mohamed Judi, Mohamed Swarhib Shafie, Srijit Das, Abdelnasser Ibrahim, Faridah Mohd Nor*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Introduction: Forensic anthropology plays an important role in investigation of deaths that involves skeletal remains. In cases, where the bodies are severely decomposed, mutilated or dismembered, identification of victims by means of physical appearance are almost impossible. Thus, the scientific basis of the investigators' knowledge will be useful to categorize unknown human remains into certain age, sex, race and stature groups to help in the identification of possible victims. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop a formula to estimate stature by using upper limb measurements in the Malaysian population. Materials and methods: Five parameters, which comprised hand length, hand breadth, forearm maximum length, arm maximum length and upper limb maximum length were measured from 81 male deceased persons received at the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Measurements were made on body surface based on anatomical landmarks by measuring tape, ruler and calipers. Results: Maximum upper limb length showed the strongest correlation with stature (R = 0.8) followed by arm length (R = 0.75) by Pearson's correlation. Linear regressions were developed by using the parameters for stature estimation. Upper limb length exhibited the lowest standard error of estimates (SEE = 4.33). The estimated and true stature showed good approximation of values by paired t-test. Conclusion: In brief, linear regressions produced were useful for estimation of stature in the Malaysian population.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)391-394
Number of pages4
JournalInternational Medical Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018


  • Anthropology
  • Forensic
  • Malaysian
  • Stature
  • Upper limb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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