State diagram of dates: Glass transition, freezing curve and maximal-freeze-concentration condition

Nejib Guizani*, Ghalib Said Al-Saidi, Mohammad Shafiur Rahman, Salwa Bornaz, Ahmed Ali Al-Alawi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Citations (Scopus)


The state diagram of Deglet Nour dates was developed using freezing curve, glass transition line, and maximal-freeze-concentration condition. Freezing points and glass transition temperature were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as a function of water content. Freezing points were fitted to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation adjusted with un-freezable water, and glass transition was fitted to the Gordon-Taylor model. Glass transition decreased with a decrease in solids content, confirming the plasticizing effect of water on date solids. Freezing point data indicated the temperature when ice formed and dates would be most stable in terms of its deterioration if it can be stored below its glass transition. Maximum-freeze-concentration conditions was found as Xs (characteristic solids content) = 0.78 g/g sample, with the characteristic temperature as Tg (characteristics glass transition) = -48 °C and Tm (characteristic end point of freezing) = -38.2 °C. These characteristics indicated that 0.22 g/g sample water in date was un-freezable (i.e. bound with solids or unable to form ice). The developed state diagram can be used in determining the stability of dates during storage as a function of temperature and moisture content. Moreover, it can be used to determine optimum drying and freezing conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)92-97
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010


  • Dates
  • Differential scanning colorimetry
  • Glass transition
  • Maximal-freeze-concentration condition
  • State diagram

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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