Spatiotemporal mapping of groundwater salinity in Al-Batinah, Oman

Ammar Abulibdeh*, Talal Al-Awadhi, Noura Al Nasiri, Ali Al-Buloshi, Montasser Abdelghani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to analyze the spatiotemporal variation of groundwater salinity in Al-Batinah governorate, a Sultanate of Oman, and the strategies to manage and control this problem in an effective way. Around 58,000 water wells were investigated based on their operational status and type between 1990 and 2018. The groundwater salinity levels in the area were classified into five categories based on the electrical conductivity (EC). These categories include fresh water or excellent irrigation water, low salinity water, moderate salinity water, high salinity water, and very high salinity water. A salinity map was created to track the changes in groundwater salinity over time in the study area. The results show that water salinity increases over time due to the increase in urbanization and over-pumping of water from these wells. The increase in water salinity has a negative impact on the sustainability of the society and the economy, particularly on the agricultural sector and hence effective government measurements are required to reduce these negative effects.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100551
JournalGroundwater for Sustainable Development
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Al-Batinah area
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Government policy
  • Groundwater salinity
  • Sustainable development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Water Science and Technology

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