Some Distinct Attributes of ZnO Nanorods Arrays: Effects of Varying Hydrothermal Growth Time

Mohammed Rashid Almamari, Naser M. Ahmed, Araa Mebdir Holi, F. K. Yam, Htet Htet Kyaw, M. A. Almessiere, Mohammed Z. Al-Abri*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigates the growth time effect on the structural, morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical characteristics of highly oriented ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNRAs). The nanorod arrays were grown on ITO substrates using the unified sol-gel spin coating and hydrothermal techniques. ZnO nanoparticles (ZNPs) were synthesized using the sol-gel spin coating method. In contrast, the hydrothermal method was used to grow the ZnO nanorods. The hydrothermal growth time investigated was between 4 and 12 h. The synthesized ZNRAs were used as the photoanode electrodes to investigate their photoelectrochemical (PEC) electrode potency. The as-prepared ZNRAs were characterized using various analytical tools to determine their structures, morphologies, optical, and photoelectrochemical traits. EDX spectra showed the presence of uncontaminated ZnO chemical composition, and FTIR spectra displayed the various functional groups in the samples. A rod-shaped ZnO nanocrystallite with mean lengths and diameters of 300–500 nm and 40–90 nm, respectively, is depicted. HRTEM images indicated the nucleation and growth of ZNRAs with a lattice fringe spacing of 0.26 nm and a growth lattice planer orientation of [002]. The optimum ZNRAs (grown at 8 h) as photoelectrode achieved a photoconversion efficiency of 0.46% and photocurrent density of 0.63 mA/cm2, that was 17 times higher than the one shown by ZNPs with Ag/AgCl as the reference electrode. Both values were higher than those reported in the literature, indicating the prospect of these ZNRAs for photoelectrode applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5827
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022


  • PEC
  • ZNRAs
  • hydrothermal growth time
  • photoconversion efficiency
  • photoelectrode

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics

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