Solubility of sodium chloride in phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents

Fatemeh Saadat Ghareh Bagh, Mohamed Kamel Omar Hadj-Kali, Farouq S. Mjalli*, Mohd Ali Hashim, Inas M. Alnashef

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


The solubility of sodium chloride (NaCl) in several phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) is studied in this work. Seven combinations of DESs were investigated. The solubility of NaCl increased with temperature in all DESs at all combinations. The type of salt and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and the salt:HBD mole ratio of the DES affected the solubility of NaCl. The solubility of NaCl in DESs that use ethylene glycol or glycerol (neutral molecules) as HBDs is very low in comparison to DESs that use zinc (II) chloride (ZnCl2) or ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) which are metal halides as complexing agents. DESs containing ZnCl2produced the highest solubility. Ethyltriphenylphosphonium bromide:ZnCl2DES possessed a NaCl solubility of 88.500 wt.% at 111 °C, and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide:ZnCl2DES possessed NaCl solubilities of 70.120 wt.% and 75.000 wt.% at 100 °C and 160 °C, respectively. The thermodynamic activity coefficient non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model was used to correlate the solubility of NaCl in the studied DESs. The calculated values in some DESs showed satisfactory agreement with the experimental values.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)344-351
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Molecular Liquids
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2014


  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • Ionic liquids
  • NRTL
  • Sodium
  • Sodium salt
  • Solubility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Spectroscopy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Solubility of sodium chloride in phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvents'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this