Solar Gain Influence on the Thermal and Energy Performance of Existing Mosque Buildings in the Hot-Arid Climate of Riyadh City

Ahmed Shohan*, Hanan Al-Khatri, Ahmed Bindajam, Mohamed B. Gadi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The required cooling energy in buildings exceeds 65% of the total energy consumed inside buildings under the extreme climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia. The proper design of buildings’ envelopes has a considerable potential in reducing such levels, especially in public buildings. The reported study evaluated the thermal performance of mosque buildings with focus on the solar gains through the envelope elements. Computer simulations were carried out using Thermal Analysis Software (TAS). In addition, the thermal and comfort votes of the worshippers in one mosque were collected. The findings revealed uncomfortable thermal conditions, especially during summer months. The required cooling energy ranged between 37% and 55% in the investigated mosques. Investigating the solar gains of the envelope elements of one mosque indicated that the roof is the largest contributor to solar gain, which highlights the potential for future research to explore new constructional alternatives with the aim of improving the roofs’ thermal performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number3332
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Building envelope
  • Cooling energy
  • Hot arid climate
  • Mosque buildings
  • PMV
  • Riyadh
  • Solar gain

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