Site response and earthquake design spectra for central Khartoum, Sudan

Y. E.A. Mohamedzein, J. A. Abdalla*, A. Abdelwahab

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, is located at the confluence of White and Blue Niles. The city is heavily populated. Central Khartoum with its high-rise buildings is the center of governmental and business activities and is located on a strip adjacent to the Blue Nile. Geological and geotechnical data indicate that the subsoil conditions at Central Khartoum are characterized by alluvial deposits underlain by Nubian Sandstone at a depth of 25 m. The alluvial deposits, locally known as Gezira formations, consist of clays grading into silt and sand with depth. Macro seismic zonation of Sudan and its vicinities, developed by the authors, gave the ground acceleration at the bedrock surface. The effect of alluvial deposits in Central Khartoum on propagation of seismic motion parameters to the ground surface is investigated in this study. Correlations are proposed for pertinent cyclic soil properties such as shear modulus, damping, and shear wave velocity. The Equivalent-Linear Earthquake Response Analyses (EERA) Model was used to study the effect of local soil conditions on ground-motion parameters. In the absence of strong-motion records in Khartoum, available worldwide strong-motion records are used. Plots showing the time histories of ground motion parameters at the ground surface are obtained. The results indicate amplification of ground motion of up to 4.93. The predicted fundamental period of soils is about 0.5 s which is typical for these types of soils. The maximum spectral acceleration varied from 0.76 to 0.95 g. For design purposes, a response spectrum curve is proposed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-293
Number of pages17
JournalBulletin of Earthquake Engineering
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2006


  • Design spectrum
  • Earthquake
  • Khartoum
  • Liquefaction
  • Micronzonation
  • Response spectrum
  • Site response
  • Sudan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geophysics


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