Short term energy consumption forecasting using neural basis expansion analysis for interpretable time series

Abdul Khalique Shaikh, Amril Nazir, Imran Khan, Abdul Salam Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Smart grids and smart homes are getting people’s attention in the modern era of smart cities. The advancements of smart technologies and smart grids have created challenges related to energy efficiency and production according to the future demand of clients. Machine learning, specifically neural network-based methods, remained successful in energy consumption prediction, but still, there are gaps due to uncertainty in the data and limitations of the algorithms. Research published in the literature has used small datasets and profiles of primarily single users; therefore, models have difficulties when applied to large datasets with profiles of different customers. Thus, a smart grid environment requires a model that handles consumption data from thousands of customers. The proposed model enhances the newly introduced method of Neural Basis Expansion Analysis for interpretable Time Series (N-BEATS) with a big dataset of energy consumption of 169 customers. Further, to validate the results of the proposed model, a performance comparison has been carried out with the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM), Blocked LSTM, Gated Recurrent Units (GRU), Blocked GRU and Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN). The proposed interpretable model improves the prediction accuracy on the big dataset containing energy consumption profiles of multiple customers. Incorporating covariates into the model improved accuracy by learning past and future energy consumption patterns. Based on a large dataset, the proposed model performed better for daily, weekly, and monthly energy consumption predictions. The forecasting accuracy of the N-BEATS interpretable model for 1-day-ahead energy consumption with “day as covariates” remained better than the 1, 2, 3, and 4-week scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22562
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 29 2022


  • Humans
  • Time Factors
  • Algorithms
  • Cities
  • Computer Systems
  • Machine Learning
  • Forecasting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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