Role of NAD+, oxidative stress, and tryptophan metabolism in autism spectrum disorders

Musthafa Mohamed Essa*, Selvaraju Subash, Nady Braidy, Samir Al-Adawi, Chai K. Lim, Tamilarasan Manivasagam, Gilles J. Guillemin

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive neuro-developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, reduced/absent verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior during early childhood. The etiology of this developmental disorder is poorly understood, and no biomarkers have been identified. Identification of novel biochemical markers related to autism would be advantageous for earlier clinical diagnosis and intervention. Studies suggest that oxidative stress-induced mechanisms and reduced antioxidant defense, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired energy metabolism (NAD+, NADH, ATP, pyruvate, and lactate), are major causes of ASD. This review provides renewed insight regarding current autism research related to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered tryptophan metabolism in ASD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-28
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Tryptophan Research
Issue numberSUPPL.1
Publication statusPublished - 2013


  • Antioxidants
  • Autism
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction
  • NAD
  • Oxidative stress
  • Tryptophan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Role of NAD+, oxidative stress, and tryptophan metabolism in autism spectrum disorders'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this