Revisiting the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis in the MENA Region: The Roles of International Tourist Arrivals, Energy Consumption and Trade Openness

Zahed Ghaderi*, Behnaz Saboori, Mana Khoshkam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


This paper employed advanced panel methods to examine the effects of international tourist arrivals on CO2 emissions in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region over the period of 1995–2018. To analyze the predictive power of tourist arrivals for CO2 emissions, the panel Granger non-causality test was employed. Employing the common correlated effects mean group estimator showed that tourist arrival reduces CO2 emissions, while energy consumption and trade openness are the main contributors of CO2 emissions. Results also showed that although first-generation estimators confirmed the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, according to the CCE-MG estimator, an inverted U-shaped association between economic progress and CO2 emissions does not exist. Furthermore, the null hypothesis of non-Granger causality from tourist arrivals to CO2 emissions was rejected. The findings suggest taking a more sustainable approach to tourism development and energy conservation in the long run.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2553
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 31 2023


  • CO emissions
  • MENA region
  • cross-sectional dependence
  • energy consumption
  • international tourist arrivals
  • trade openness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Building and Construction
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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