Review - White Light-Emitting Diodes: Past, Present, and Future

Noor Ul Islam, Muhammad Usman*, Saad Rasheed, Tariq Jamil

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


With the advancement in technology of efficient and high-quality lighting, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are gradually gaining ground with their ever-increasing high efficiency, energy density excitation, high device stability, and high output power. In this review, various technological approaches that are used to produce white light are presented. The progress made in improving the efficiency of white LEDs, using different phosphors along with a blue LED chip, is discussed. Phosphor-based approach is better and efficient in comparison to other approaches to generate white light. Using different phosphors, the improvement in luminous efficacy of white LEDs is reviewed. This review may serve as a roadmap for easily-fabricated, low-cost, and a longer lifespan white light-emitting diodes for indoor and outdoor applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106004
JournalECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials


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