Results from the Survey of Antibiotic Resistance (SOAR) 2011-13 in the Gulf States

A. Jamsheer, A. M. Rafay, Z. Daoud, I. Morrissey, D. Torumkuney*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: To provide surveillance data on the susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract isolates from four Gulf and Near East countries from 2011 to 2013. Methods: MICs were determined using Etestsw for all antibiotics evaluated except erythromycin, where testing was by disc diffusion. Susceptibility was assessed using CLSI, EUCAST and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) breakpoints. Results: Seven hundred and twenty-six respiratory isolates comprising 265 isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 125 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 336 isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were collected from Bahrain, Lebanon, Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Among S. pneumoniae, susceptibility to penicillin was low in the UAE and Bahrain. Macrolide susceptibility was 45%-60% in the UAE and Oman but higher in Lebanon (73.7%) and Bahrain (84%-85%). Penicillin susceptibility using CLSI intravenous breakpoints was >85% in all countries. Antibiotic susceptibility of S. pneumoniae was lower in UAE and Oman. Among S. pyogenes isolates, resistance to erythromycin was highest in Oman (31.6%) but <20% in the other countries. In H. influenzae, susceptibility to most antibiotics was high, except for ampicillin in Lebanon (70.2%) and amoxicillin in Oman (95.4%). Lebanon also had a high percentage (14.9%) of b-lactamase-positive isolates with non-susceptibility to ampicillin. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid susceptibility was >95% in all countries. Use of EUCAST versus CLSI breakpoints demonstrated profound differences for cefaclor and cefuroxime in S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, with EUCAST showing lower susceptibility. Conclusions: There was considerable variability in susceptibility among countries in the same region. Thus, continued surveillance is necessary to track future changes in antibiotic resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)i45-i61
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology


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