Removal efficiency and economic cost comparison of hydrated electron-mediated reductive pathways for treatment of bromate

Shah Nawaz, Noor S. Shah*, Javed Ali Khan, Murtaza Sayed, Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, Nawshad Muhammad, Behzad Murtaza, Hasan M. Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Citations (Scopus)


Bromate, a potential carcinogen, is a well known highly persistent and environmentally recalcitrant contaminant. UV-254/sulfite-based advanced reductive pathways (ARPs) were proposed to eliminate bromate successfully from water. Experiments with N2, N2O, 2-chlorophenol, inorganic ions, and different pH (highly acidic to highly basic) proved that UV-254/sulfite successfully provides aqueous electron that effectively participate in bromate removal from water. Significant removal, 86%, of initially 39.0 µM bromate was achieved by UV-254/sulfite under conditions that dominate aqueous electron based pathways. The high second-order rate constant of 5.3 × 109 M−1 s−1 determined proved high reactivity of aqueous electron with bromate. The kinetic and removal efficiency of bromate showed linear relationship with the rate of aqueous electron formation. An increase in kinetic and removal efficiency of bromate was observed with increasing initial sulfite concentration and decreasing bromate concentration. The impacts of different initial concentrations of the typical ions commonly found in water were studied in detail to extend the UV-254/sulfite-based process for potential practical applications. The lower molar absorptivity of bromate at 254 nm determined proved insignificant removal of bromate under direct photolysis. The impacts of initial sulfite concentration on removal of bromate in UV-254/sulfite-based process also minimized role of direct photolysis. The cost evaluation and rapid decomposition of bromate into bromide proved UV-254/sulfite-based ARPs to be economical and highly rewarding in efficient decomposition of bromate and other inorganic oxyhalides.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-531
Number of pages9
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - Jul 15 2017


  • ARPs
  • Bromate
  • Degradation mechanism
  • Sulfite
  • UV-254
  • Water treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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