Pyrolysis of olive cake with catalytic upgrading of volatile products

Elise Farah, Emile Atallah, Belal J. Abu Tarboush, Joseph Zeaiter*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


SAPO-34 and 1 mol% MeSAPO-34 (metal-modified catalysts, Me = Ni, Fe) were synthesized and tested for the catalytic pyrolysis of olive cake at 500 °C under inert conditions. The characterization of the catalysts was performed using XRD, BET, SEM, EDX, FT-IR, and TGA. MeSAPO catalysts demonstrated a chabazite cubic structure identical to the parent catalyst, with lower surface areas and particle sizes, and less water retention. The use of catalysts increased gas yield from 39 to 66% and decreased the oil yield from 39 to 10%. Biochar yield was maintained around 25%, and the solid samples showed an increase in carbonization as shown in the SEM and EDX results. Liquid GC-MS analysis indicated that SAPO was more selective towards alkane and amine products, whereas metal-modified catalysts favored the production of alkenes, acids, and phenols. Similarly, the analysis of the gas samples revealed the presence of light olefins and light oxygenated compounds which varied with the type of catalyst used.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2663-2675
Number of pages13
JournalBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2022


  • Catalytic cracking
  • Olive waste
  • Pyrolysis
  • SAPO-34

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment

Cite this