Psychic income benefits of small-scale sports events: host community perspectives

Zahed Ghaderi*, Mojtaba Rajabi, Matthew Walker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Research Question: Prior event impact research has largely focused on the tangible outcomes of mega- and large-scale sports events. Significantly less work has examined the intangible impacts of such events. This study helps fill this research gap by testing a measurement framework and scale for psychic income in the context of a small-scale sports event (SSSE) in Northern Iran. Research Method: We tested and validated five factors thought to encapsulate the main psychic impacts of a small-scale event. Primary data (N = 825 usable questionnaires) were collected among local community residents. The study samples were divided into two sets: one (n = 412) for the exploratory factor analysis (EFA, Varimax Rotation), and two (n = 413) for the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: The results showed that community pride and image, community attachment, event excitement, cultural confidence, and community excitement are valid measures for SSSE psychic income. Although prior research has suggested that community infrastructure is a strongly supported intangible event impact, this construct was not influenced here. Implications: Examining the psychic income of SSSE’s in a culturally and geographically distinct setting provides and pathway for future work dedicated to smaller, even grassroots and startup, events. Moreover, by refining and extending existing frameworks, a model of evaluating the psychological benefits of SSSE’s is suggested, which event organizers can utilize to entice sponsors, leverage event-related assets, and maximize host community (and regional) benefits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)467-487
Number of pages21
JournalEuropean Sport Management Quarterly
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Small-scale sports events (SSSE)
  • intangible event impacts
  • psychic income

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
  • Strategy and Management


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