Proposed national diagnostic reference levels for standard radiographic X-ray procedures in Sudan

Nada A. Ahmed*, E. H. Basheir, A. B. Farah, T. S. Mohammedzein, I. I. Suliman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to calculate patient radiation doses for adults during the seven most commonly performed conventional X-ray procedures, and to propose national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A representative sample of patients from 29 hospitals was included. The entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) was calculated by measuring X-ray tube output and the corresponding technical and exposure factors for each patient. Third-quartile values of the mean ESAK distributions were proposed as DRL values. The DRLs in mGy were as follows: 0.6 for chest postero–anterior (PA), 3.5 for skull AP, 1.7 for skull lateral (LAT), 2.7 for abdominal, 2.6 for pelvic AP, 3.7 for lumbar spine AP and 8 for lumbar spine LAT. Compared with literature, the maximum percentages increase were in chest PA (329%) and skull AP (187%). Since the suggested DRL for chest PA was higher than literature values, dose optimization and a review of its value is recommended.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)419-426
Number of pages8
JournalRadiation Protection Dosimetry
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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