Research output: Other contribution


In the context of foreign and second language study, the term “projects” refers both to multiskill student‐centered activities and to alternative assessment initiatives. These two meanings correspond to two approaches to projects that are linked respectively to a communicative and a performance‐testing conception of language and acknowledge the effects of the context on learners' performance. This entry examines projects as an example of alternative assessment, which is also referred to as authentic assessment, performance, and multiple or complementary assessment. It discusses key research considerations related to the interpretation of projects as alternative assessments, their characteristics, their benefits, and critical issues related to them. It also gives some practical recommendations for constructing projects for language learners.
Original languageEnglish
TypeThe TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching
Media of outputprinted
PublisherJohn Wiley and Sons Inc.
Place of PublicationThe TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, First Edition. Edited by John I. Liontas (Project Editor: Margo DelliCarpini; Volume Editor (Coombe, C.), Hoboken, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
EditionFirst Edition
Publication statusPublished - 2018


  • projects
  • alternative assessment
  • learners
  • language
  • performance


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