Prevalence of nephrotoxicity in HIV patients treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: A single-center observational study

Kowthar Salman Hassan*, Abdullah Balkhair

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) has been reported to cause nephrotoxicity necessitating cessation in some patients. No information is available on the nephrotoxic effect of TDF in Omani or regional patients with HIV infection. We sought to determine the prevalence of the nephrotoxic effects of TDF in our cohort of Omani patients with HIV and investigate the nephrotoxic effects of other cofactors. Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study on 83 Omani patients currently on TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy. Renal dysfunction was monitored by measuring the serum creatinine estimated glomerular function rate (eGFR), urinary protein creatinine ratio (uPCR), and fractional excretion of phosphate (FEPi). Fisher’s exact test was used to determine any additional nephrotoxic effects of cofactors. Results: The median values for the duration of TDF use, patient age, and body mass index (BMI) at the time of the study were 178 weeks (range = 3–554), 42 years (range = 21–80), and 27 (range = 17.4–42.7), respectively. The median initial CD4 count and viral load were 205 × 106/L (range = 3–1745) and 37 250 copies/mL (range = undetectable–9 523 428), respectively. FEPi was high in two (2.4%) patients, moderate in 26 (31.3%), and low in 55 (66.3%) patients. uPCR was high in 10 (12.0%) patients, moderate in 28 (33.7%), and low in 45 (54.2%) patients. No cofactors added to the nephrotoxicity except hypertension (p = 0.045). Conclusions: Better definitions for TDF-associated toxicity are needed. uPCR is not a very good indicator of TDF-associated tubular dysfunction. Omani patients with HIV on TDF have a 4% prevalence of renal toxicity, but a study with a larger number of patients is required to explore this observation further. Cofactors like duration of TDF use, age, BMI, gender, diabetes mellitus, and use of protease inhibitors did not have an impact on the severity of FEPi and uPCR.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-237
Number of pages7
JournalOman Medical Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


  • AIDS Nephropathy
  • Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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