Potentials of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) essential oil on ruminal methanogenesis, feed degradability, and enzyme activities in vitro

Hani M. El-Zaiat*, Adibe L. Abdalla

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


The effects of patchouli essential oil (PEO) as an alternative to antibiotics on ruminal methanogenesis, feed degradability, and enzyme activities were evaluated. The basal substrate was incubated without additives (control, CTL) and with monensin (MON, 6 μM/g DM) or patchouli essential oil (PEO, 90 μg/g DM) for 24 h. In three different runs, the gas production (GP) was recorded at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h of incubation using a semi-automatic system. The results revealed that MON had decreased (P < 0.05) the net GP and CH4 production and digestible and metabolizable energy relative to PEO supplementation. The in vitro truly degraded organic matter was not influenced by PEO application, while was reduced (P = 0.027) with MON. Both PEO and MON had similar reducing effect on the activity of carboxymethylcellulase (P = 0.030), in vitro truly degraded neutral detergent fiber (P = 0.010), NH3-N concentrations (P = 0.012), acetate proportion (C2, P = 0.046), C2 to C3 ratio (P = 0.023), and total protozoal count (P = 0.017). Both additives recorded similar elevating potential on the α-amylase activity (P = 0.012), propionate (C3) proportion (P = 0.011), and microbial protein (P = 0.034) compared with CTL. Effects of MON and PEO on ruminal feed degradability, microbial enzyme activities, and total protozoa counts may be responsible for modifying rumen fermentation ecology. Addition of PEO may act as a desirable alternative rumen modifier for MON in ruminant diets.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)30220-30228
Number of pages9
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number29
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2019


  • Enzyme activities
  • Fiber degradability
  • Methanogenesis
  • Natural feed additives
  • Patchouli essential oil
  • Ruminal fermentation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

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