Physico-chemical properties of hydrochars produced from raw olive pomace using olive mill wastewater as moisture source

Ahmed Amine Azzaz*, Mejdi Jeguirim, Evan A.N. Marks, Carlos Rad, Salah Jellali, Mary Lorène Goddard, Camelia Matei Ghimbeu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we assessed the transformation of raw olive pomace into carbon-rich material using olive mill wastewater (OMWW) as the liquid medium for the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) process. The findings were compared accordingly with the use of distilled water (DW), which is the conventional practice. The use of OMWW as a liquid matrix enhanced the hydrochar yield, but volatile matter, fixed carbon content, and O/C and H/C ratios followed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, for an HTC temperature of 220 °C, the use of OMWW considerably increased the high heating value of the hydrochars from approximately 24.2 MJ/kg to 31.6 MJ/kg. According to the van Krevelen diagram of feedstock and derived hydrochars, dehydration was the predominant carbonization reaction for both liquid sources. Morphological characterization of both sets of hydrochars indicated the generation of specific carbon nuclei when using DW while OMWW led to the creation of hydrochar with a less homogeneous surface. Structural analysis revealed the heterogeneous aspect of the hydrochar surface with an abundance of crystallized metal-based inorganic salts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)635-652
Number of pages18
JournalComptes Rendus Chimie
Issue number11-12
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • High heating value
  • Hydrothermal carbonization
  • Liquid characterization
  • Olive mill wastewater
  • Raw olive pomace
  • Solid characterization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering

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