Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Fuels and Value-Added Products

Vignesh Kumaravel*, John Bartlett, Suresh C. Pillai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

321 Citations (Scopus)


The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into fuels and value-added products is one of the most significant inventions to address the global warming and energy needs. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) CO2 conversion can be considered as an artificial photosynthesis technique that produces formate, formaldehyde, formic acid, methane, methanol, ethanol, etc. Recent advances in electrode materials, mechanisms, kinetics, thermodynamics, and reactor designs of PEC CO2 conversion have been comprehensively reviewed in this article. The adsorption and activation of CO2/intermediates at the electrode surface are the key steps for improving the kinetics of CO2 conversion. PEC efficiency could be upgraded through the utilization of 2D/3D materials, plasmonic metals, carbon-based catalysts, porous nanostructures, metal-organic frameworks, molecular catalysts, and biological molecules. The defect engineered (by cation/anion vacancy, crystal distortion, pits, and creation of oxygen vacancies) 2D/3D materials, Z-scheme heterojunctions, bioelectrodes, and tandem photovoltaic-PEC reactors are suitable options to enhance the efficiency at low external bias.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)486-519
Number of pages34
JournalACS Energy Letters
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2020
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Photoelectrochemical Conversion of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) into Fuels and Value-Added Products'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this