Permeable breakwaters performance modeling: A comparative study of machine learning techniques

Mostafa Gandomi, Moharram Dolatshahi Pirooz*, Iman Varjavand, Mohammad Reza Nikoo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The advantage of permeable breakwaters over more traditional types has attracted great interest in the behavior of these structures in the field of engineering. The main objective of this study is to apply 19 well-known machine learning regressors to derive the best model of innovative breakwater hydrodynamic behavior with reflection and transmission coefficients as the target parameters. A database of 360 laboratory tests on the low-scale breakwater is used to establish the model. The proposed models link the reflection and transmission coefficients to seven dimensionless parameters, including relative chamber width, relative rockfill height, relative chamber width in terms of wavelength, wave steepness, wave number multiplied by water depth, and relative wave height in terms of rockfill height. For the validation of the models, the crossvalidation method was used for all models except the multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) and genetic programming (GP) models. To validate the MLP and GP, the database is divided into three categories: training, validation, and testing. Furthermore, two explicit functional relationships are developed by utilizing the GP for each target. The exponential Gaussian process regression (GPR) model in predicting the reflection coefficient (R2 = 0.95, OBJ function = 0.0273), and similarly, the exponential GPR model in predicting the transmission coefficient (R2 = 0.98, OBJ function = 0.0267) showed the best performance and the highest correlation with the actual records and can further be used as a reference for engineers in practical work. Also, the sensitivity analysis of the proposed models determined that the relative height parameter of the rockfill material has the greatest contribution to the introduced breakwater behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1856
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2020


  • Machine learning regressors
  • Permeable breakwater
  • Reflection
  • Sensitivity analysis
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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