Organic/inorganic amendments for the remediation of a red paddy soil artificially contaminated with different cadmium levels: Leaching, speciation, and phytoavailability tests

Yasir Hamid*, Lei Liu, Muhammad Usman, Lin Tang, Qiang Lin, Muhammad Saqib Rashid, Zaid Ulhassan, M. Iftikhar Hussain, Xiaoe Yang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In the present study, the viability of using manure (M), lime (L), and sepiolite (S) alone and in combinations (M/L, M/S, and M/L/S) was evaluated for the remediation of a red paddy soil artificially contaminated with three levels of cadmium (Cd- 0.6, 1, and 2 mg kg−1 soil). Experiments were performed in columns (to evaluate Cd leaching) and pots by growing rice plants (to study Cd accumulation in plants). Before their application, the tested amendments were thoroughly characterized using SEM, EDS and FT-IR spectroscopy. The leaching experiment indicates that the application of L or M/L significantly improved the pH of soil leachate collected at different time intervals. However, the use of M/L/S was found better in decreasing the Cd contents in collected leachate. The use of M/L efficiently decreased the DTPA metal extraction (0.19, 0.41, and 0.55 mg kg−1) as compared to the CK (0.35, 0.63, and 1.13 mg kg−1, respectively). The Cd speciation results depicted a 33% decrease in exchangeable Cd with M/L/S treatment when compared with control (55%). Moreover, the M/L/S treatment was more efficient in lowering the Cd phytoavailability and subsequent accumulation in rice grains (0.05, 0.09, and 0.08 mg kg−1). These findings demonstrate that the use of composite amendments is categorically effective as an in-situ remediation tool to decrease Cd leaching and availability in diverse contaminations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114148
Pages (from-to)114148
JournalJournal of Environmental Management
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2022


  • Cd immobilization
  • Cd leaching
  • Metal mobility and bioavailability
  • Soil amendments
  • Spiked soil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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