Optimizing pump-and-treat method by considering important remediation objectives

Mohammad Javad Zeynali, Mohsen Pourreza-Bilondi*, Abolfazl Akbarpour, Jafar Yazdi, Slim Zekri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The efficiency of groundwater remediation by pump-and-treat (PAT) method is affected by several components. The most important of these components include the pumping wells location, pumping rate, and remediation period. In this research, hybrid optimization-simulation models were developed to find the appropriate groundwater remediation strategy by PAT method. The GA-FEM and NSGA-II-FEM models were used to solve four optimization problems for a hypothetical and real aquifer. These optimization problems were investigated from one objective problem to a four-objectives problem. In the multi-objective problems, in each step, one objective function is added to the previous set of objective functions. In the one-objective case, the objective function was defined as minimizing the contaminant concentration by pumping at a constant rate, while in the two-objectives problem, minimizing the drawdown of groundwater head by pumping at a constant rate was added. In the three-objectives problem, the pumping rate was variable and the mean pumping rate from all the wells is minimized. Finally, minimizing the remediation period is added in the four-objective case. The results indicated that locating the pumping wells in the path of the contaminant flow and close to the source improves the efficiency of the PAT system. The wells with higher pumping rates would be in the path of contamination flow and the wells with lower pumping rates should be located in nodes near the Dirichlet boundary. It is concluded that the remediation period in the hypothetical and real aquifer cannot be less than almost 3000 and 760 days, respectively. Finally, it can be said, the most important component in choosing the proper PAT strategy is the proper location of pumping wells.

Original languageEnglish
Article number268
JournalApplied Water Science
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Contaminant concentration
  • Drawdown of groundwater head
  • Finite element method
  • Genetic algorithms
  • Pumping rate
  • Remediation period

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Water Science and Technology

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