Optimization of Smart Water Chemical Composition for Carbonate Rocks Through Comparison of Active Cations Performance

Malek Jalilian, Peyman Pourafshary, Behnam Sedaee Sola, Mosayyeb Kamari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Designing smart water (SW) by optimizing the chemical composition of injected brine is a promising low-cost technique that has been developed for both sandstone and carbonate reservoirs for several decades. In this study, the impact of SW flooding during tertiary oil recovery phase was investigated by core flooding analysis of pure limestone carbonate rocks. Increasing the sulfate ion concentration by using CaSO4 and MgSO4 of NaCl concentration and finally reducing the total salinity were the main manipulations performed to optimize SW. The main objective of this research is to compare active cations including Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the presence of sulfate ions (SO42â ') with regard to their efficiency in the enhancement of oil production during SW flooding of carbonate cores. The results revealed a 14.5% increase in the recovery factor by CaSO4 proving its greater effectiveness compared to MgSO4, which led to an 11.5% production enhancement. It was also realized that low-salinity water flooding (LSWF) did not lead to a significant positive effect as it contributed less than 2% in the tertiary stage.

Original languageEnglish
Article number062904
JournalJournal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbonated reservoirs
  • Low salinity water flooding
  • Recovery factorcore floods
  • Smart water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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