Optimal Location and Sizing of Electric Bus Battery Swapping Station in Microgrid Systems by Considering Revenue Maximization

Mustafa Cagatay Kocer, Ahmet Onen, Jaesung Jung, Hakan Gultekin, Sahin Albayrak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


The radical increase in the popularity of electric vehicles (EVs) has in turn increased the number of associated problems. Long waiting times at charging stations are a major barrier to the widespread adoption of EVs. Therefore, battery swapping stations (BSSs) are an efficient solution that considers short waiting times and healthy recharging cycles for battery systems. Moreover, swapping stations have emerged as a great opportunity not only for EVs, but also for power systems, with regulation services that can be provided to the grid particularly for small networks, such as microgrid (MG) systems. In this study, the optimum location and size that maximize the revenue of a swap station in an MG system are investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to solve the placing and sizing problem in the MG from the perspective of a BSS. The results indicate that bus 23 is the BSS’s optimal location and is crucial for maximizing revenue and addressing issues like the provision of ancillary services in microgrid system. Finally, the swap demand profile of the station serving electric bus public transportation system was obtained using an analytical model based on public transportation data collected in Berlin, Germany.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41084-41095
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2023


  • Batteries
  • Charging stations
  • Costs
  • Microgrids
  • Optimization
  • Regulation
  • Vehicle-to-grid
  • ancillary services
  • battery swapping station
  • electric bus
  • electric vehicle
  • microgrid
  • optimal location

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Materials Science
  • General Computer Science

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