OFDM based robust digital image watermarking resistant to multipath spatial shifts

Suja Kalarikkal Pulayikodi, Naser Altrhuni, Afaq Ahmed, Fahad Bait Shiginah

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


A digital watermark is a visible or invisible pattern embedded in a digital image which can be used for copy right protection, authentication, broadcast monitoring, telemedicine and many more. This paper describes how an efficient CDMA based spread spectrum technique can be combined with the most prominent spectrum efficient OFDM technology to formulate a robust watermarking algorithm which is suitable for image distortions due to time delays and spatial shift that may occur during the transmission of watermarked images. A detailed simulation of embedding and decoding algorithm was performed. Simulation results reveal that the algorithm is computationally efficient, robust and is well suited for wireless multipath fading channel. The algorithm was tested against a number of the possible noises in the wireless channels and various geometric and signal processing operations. The proposed algorithm is proved to be robust enough to extract a good quality watermark compared to well-known techniques.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2017 9th IEEE-GCC Conference and Exhibition, GCCCE 2017
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Print)9781538627563
Publication statusPublished - Aug 27 2018
Event9th IEEE-GCC Conference and Exhibition, GCCCE 2017 - Manama, Bahrain
Duration: May 8 2017May 11 2017


Other9th IEEE-GCC Conference and Exhibition, GCCCE 2017


  • Distortion
  • Multipath
  • OFDM
  • Robust
  • Watermarking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Signal Processing
  • Information Systems and Management
  • Media Technology
  • Instrumentation


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