Numerical Modeling of Seawater Intrusion in Wadi Al-Jizi Coastal Aquifer in the Sultanate of Oman

Javed Akhtar, Ahmad Sana*, Syed Mohammed Tauseef, Hitoshi Tanaka

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The Sultanate of Oman is an arid country in the Arabian Peninsula suffering from insufficient freshwater supplies and extremely hot weather conditions. The only source of recharge is rainfall, which is scarce and varies with space and time, for the aquifers being overexploited for the last few decades. This has led to depleting groundwater levels and seawater intrusion into coastal aquifers. In the present study, Ground Modeling System (GMS) was employed in Wadi Al-Jizi, which is one of the important aquifers in the Al Batinah coastal plain that caters to the needs of the country’s 70% agriculture. MODFLOW and MT3DMS were used to simulate the groundwater levels and solute transport, respectively. These models were calibrated under steady and transient conditions using observed data from twenty monitoring wells for a period of seventeen years (year 2000–2016). After validation, the model was utilized to predict the salinity intrusion due to changes in groundwater abstraction rates and sea level rise owing to climatic change. These predictions show that, by the year 2040, salinity intrusion (TDS > 12,800 mg/L) will transgress by 0.80 km inland if the current abstraction rates are allowed to be maintained. Further deterioration of groundwater quality is anticipated in the following years due to the increased pumping rates. The models and the results from the present study may be utilized for the effective management of groundwater resources in the Wadi Al-Jizi aquifer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number211
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Nov 27 2022


  • MT3DMS
  • coastal aquifers
  • groundwater
  • numerical modeling
  • sea level rise
  • seawater intrusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Earth-Surface Processes

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