Next generation NIR fluorophores for tumor imaging and fluorescence-guided surgery: A review

Ashanul Haque*, Md Serajul Haque Faizi, Jahangir Ahmad Rather, Muhammad S. Khan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

148 Citations (Scopus)


Cancer is a group of diseases responsible for the major causes of mortality and morbidity among people of all ages. Even though medical sciences have made enormous growth, complete treatment of this deadly disease is still a challenging task. Last few decades witnessed an impressive growth in the design and development of near infrared (NIR) fluorophores with and without recognition moieties for molecular recognitions, imaging and image guided surgeries. The present article reviews recently reported NIR emitting organic/inorganic fluorophores that targets and accumulates in organelle/organs specifically for molecular imaging of cancerous cells. Near infrared (NIR probe) with or without a tumor-targeting warhead have been considered and discussed for their applications in the field of cancer imaging. In addition, challenges persist in this area are also delineated in this review.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2017-2034
Number of pages18
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Cancer
  • Near infrared-I/II
  • Targeted imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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