New approach of modifying the anatase to rutile transition temperature in TiO2 photocatalysts

Ciara Byrne, Rachel Fagan, Steven Hinder, Declan E. McCormack, Suresh C. Pillai*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Citations (Scopus)


In pure synthetic titanium dioxide, the anatase to rutile phase transition usually occurs between the temperatures of 600 °C and 700 °C. The phase transition temperature can be altered by various methods, including modifying the precursor or by adding dopant or modifier to the TiO2 sample. In an attempt to investigate the phase transition using aromatic carboxylic acids, the current study examines the impact of increasing concentrations of benzoic acid (1:0, 1:1, 1:4 and 1:8 molar ratio TiO2:benzoic acid) on anatase to rutile transition. The samples were characterised using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies. At 500 °C, all samples contained only anatase. At 600 °C, the 1:1, 1:4 and 1:8 samples contain only anatase and the control (which contains no modifier) was a mixture of 27% anatase and 73% rutile. At 700 °C, the 1:1 molar ratio sample contained 50% anatase/rutile, 1:4 and 1:8 molar ratio samples were observed to have a majority of anatase, 76% and 71% respectively. When the temperature was increased to 800 °C, the sample with the 1:4 molar ratio contained 10% anatase and at the same temperature the 1:8 ratio sample contained 7% anatase; the remaining samples (1:0 and 1:1) at this temperature contained only rutile. These results show that there is a significant % anatase still present when the doped samples were calcined to 700 °C when compared with the control (100% rutile). There are small amounts of the anatase phase in the 1:4 and 1:8 samples at 800 °C. Therefore, benzoic acid has induced a delay in the rutile formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95232-95238
Number of pages7
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number97
Publication statusPublished - 2016

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)


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