Measuring eco-efficiency based on green indicators and potentials in energy saving and undesirable output abatement

Kamran Rashidi, Reza Farzipoor Saen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

132 Citations (Scopus)


Nowadays, majority of organizations are seeking to achieve sustainable development with respect to "green" concept. One of the main criteria for assessing green performance is eco-efficiency. To identify all aspects of the eco-efficiency, inputs should be divided into energy and non-energy and outputs should be divided into good and bad outputs. To deal with this issue, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is developed to divide inputs into both energy and non-energy and outputs into both desirable (good) and undesirable (bad) outputs. Likewise, variables are separated into both discretionary and non-discretionary factors. Accordingly, a bounded adjusted measure (BAM) based on green indicators is developed to calculate the eco-efficiency of decision making units (DMUs). Besides, energy saving potentials and undesirable output abatement potentials are calculated to show correlation coefficient between energy consumption and undesirable output. Finally, proposed model is validated by assessing the eco-efficiency of some selected members of organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD). Australia, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand, and Switzerland are recognized as eco-efficient countries and the rest of countries are inefficient in terms of the eco-efficiency. High and positive Spearman correlation coefficient between energy consumption and undesirable outputs addresses that the more use of energy inputs, the more undesirable outputs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-26
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Economics
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2015


  • Data envelopment analysis
  • Eco-efficiency
  • Energy saving
  • Green index
  • Pure eco-performance
  • Undesirable output

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Economics and Econometrics
  • Energy(all)

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