Magnetite and Green Rust: Synthesis, Properties, and Environmental Applications of Mixed-Valent Iron Minerals

M. Usman*, J. M. Byrne, A. Chaudhary, S. Orsetti, K. Hanna, C. Ruby, A. Kappler, S. B. Haderlein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

329 Citations (Scopus)


Mixed-valent iron [Fe(II)-Fe(III)] minerals such as magnetite and green rust have received a significant amount of attention over recent decades, especially in the environmental sciences. These mineral phases are intrinsic and essential parts of biogeochemical cycling of metals and organic carbon and play an important role regarding the mobility, toxicity, and redox transformation of organic and inorganic pollutants. The formation pathways, mineral properties, and applications of magnetite and green rust are currently active areas of research in geochemistry, environmental mineralogy, geomicrobiology, material sciences, environmental engineering, and environmental remediation. These aspects ultimately dictate the reactivity of magnetite and green rust in the environment, which has important consequences for the application of these mineral phases, for example in remediation strategies. In this review we discuss the properties, occurrence, formation by biotic as well as abiotic pathways, characterization techniques, and environmental applications of magnetite and green rust in the environment. The aim is to present a detailed overview of the key aspects related to these mineral phases which can be used as an important resource for researchers working in a diverse range of fields dealing with mixed-valent iron minerals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3251-3304
Number of pages54
JournalChemical Reviews
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 11 2018
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry

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