Low-Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diet for Improvement of Glycemic Control: Mechanism of Action of Ketosis and Beneficial Effects

Hussein F Sakr, Srinivasa Rao Sirasanagandla, Srijit Das, Abdulhadi I Bima, Ayman Z Elsamanoudy

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The incidence of metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus is increasing globally. A diet rich in carbohydrates increases the hyperglycemic state. While considering the lifestyle changes to combat life-threatening diseases, there is an effort to decrease the daily intake of carbohydrates. A low-carbohydrate diet also makes the body rely more on fat for energy, so there is less fat accu-mulation. A diet is considered to be low-carbohydrate ketogenic if the intake is ≤ 50 g per day. The ‘low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet’ (LCKD) produces ketosis. LCKD contains high-fat, moderate-protein, and low-carbohydrate components. The main objectives of the present review are to discuss insulin resistance in different viscera of the body, describe the role of adipokines in insulin re-sistance, understand the mechanism of ketogenesis, and determine the impact of LCKD in over-coming insulin resistance in the body. In the present review, we also highlight the beneficial effects of LCKD in metabolic, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and lipid disorders and discuss the effect on longevity and aging. LCKD may help in combating the morbidity and mortality arising from the above-mentioned diseases and also help in leading a better quality of life.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere110522204580
Pages (from-to)82-93
Number of pages12
JournalCurrent Diabetes Reviews
Issue number2
Early online dateMay 11 2022
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2023


  • carbohydrates
  • diabetes mellitus
  • diet
  • fats
  • insulin
  • Ketogenic
  • ketosis
  • Carbohydrates
  • Diet, Ketogenic
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Ketosis
  • Ketone Bodies
  • Quality of Life
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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