Investigation of channel materials toward better cooling lithium-ion batteries in the presence of nanofluid and pin-fins

M. Ziad Saghir*, M. M. Rahman, Y. Bicer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Cooling lithium-ion batteries has been an important research subject in the energy sector. The automotive industry is looking for ways to develop a constant cooling and lightweight lithium-ion battery module. In this context, this present paper addresses means for a better cooling mechanism of lithium-ion batteries. Two different fluids are used, mainly distilled water and nanofluid composed of 0.1% vol TiO2, 0.5%volTiO2 (Titanium oxide) and 2% vol TiO2 (Titanium oxide) diluted in distilled water. The channel totalling six, has rectangular shapes with 2 mm and 4 mm in height. The channels made of different materials are sandwiched between two sets of lithium-ion batteries is used in a commercial application. The model governing equations for flow and heat transfer has been solved using the finite element technique. COMSOL software has been used in this analysis. Furthermore, pin-fins have been used to improve the cooling process. Different channel materials are proposed, such as Aluminum (Al), Aluminum nitrate (AlN), Magnesium (Mg), Silicone carbide (SiC) and graphite. Results revealed that water used as a cooling liquid could be enhanced by adding metallic nanoparticles (i.e. nanofluid). A 12% heat enhancement is noticeable using nanofluid but at the expense of the pressure drop. On the other hand, using pin-fins combined with water has been shown to have created a reverse flow in the channel and improved heat extraction by up to 29%. The location of the pin fin also demonstrates an additional parameter to be considered for heat enhancement. Amongst the materials, Aluminum nitrate alloy is found to be the most suitable material for cooling and lightweight module.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100349
JournalInternational Journal of Thermofluids
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2023


  • Energy source
  • Finite element method
  • Lithium-ion batteries
  • Mini-channels
  • Pin-fins

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes

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