Intrainsular functional connectivity in human

Talal Almashaikhi, Sylvain Rheims, Karine Ostrowsky-Coste, Alexandra Montavont, Julien Jung, Julitta De Bellescize, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Pascal Keo Kosal, Marc Guénot, Olivier Bertrand, Philippe Ryvlin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: The anatomical organization of the insular cortex is characterized by its rich and heterogeneous cytoarchitecture and its wide network of connections. However, only limited knowledge is available regarding the intrainsular connections subserving the complex integrative role of the insular cortex. The aim of this study was to analyze the functional connectivity within- and across-insular subregions, at both gyral and functional levels. Experimental design: We performed intracerebral electrical stimulation in 10 patients with refractory epilepsy investigated with depth electrodes, 38 of which were inserted in the insula. Bipolar electrical stimulation, consisting of two series of 20 pulses of 1-ms duration, 0.2-Hz frequency, and 1-mA intensity, was delivered at each insular contact. For each stimulated insular anatomical region, we calculated a rate of connectivity, reflecting the proportion of other insular contacts, showing significant evoked potentials. Results: Statistically significant evoked potentials were recorded in 74% of tested connections, with an average latency of 26 ± 3 ms. All insular gyri were interconnected, except the anterior and posterior short gyri. Most connections were reciprocal, showing no clear anterior to posterior directionality. No connection was observed between the right and the left insula. Conclusions: These findings point to specific features of human insula connectivity as compared to non-Human primates, and remain consistent with the complex integration role devoted to the human insula in many cognitive domains.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2779-2788
Number of pages10
JournalHuman Brain Mapping
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2014


  • Evoked potential
  • Functional connectivity
  • Human
  • Insular
  • Intra-cranial electrical stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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