Influence of Heavy Metals on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Wheat, Pea, and Tomato

Nijara Baruah, Subham C. Mondal, Muhammad Farooq, Nirmali Gogoi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Citations (Scopus)


Experiments were conducted under lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu) exposure to observe germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L), pea (Pisum sativum), and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Metals were applied in five concentrations (20, 65, 110, 175, and 220 ppm) and Hoagland solution was used to feed the seedlings. Irrespective of the tested crop seeds, copper revealed maximum effect (51.2%) on germination followed by lead (47.5%) and cadmium (35.3%). Tomato seeds were most sensitive in germination stage followed by pea and wheat. In seedling stage, tomato also showed highest sensitivity to both Cd and Cu. However, pea seedlings showed higher tolerance to Pb and wheat seedlings had the highest tolerance to both Cu and Cd. Toxicity and tolerance of metals was found to vary with crops and growth stages. Higher transfer of metals (Pb, Cd, and Cu) in wheat seedling indicates higher risk of food chain contamination when grown in polluted soil. Higher mobility and uptake of Cd in tomato and wheat seedlings even under lower concentration of exposure needs further study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number273
JournalWater, Air, and Soil Pollution
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2019


  • Bioaccumulation
  • Germination
  • Metal stress
  • Pea
  • Tomato
  • Wheat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Ecological Modelling
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Pollution


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